Reflections on Transition

(Managua, Nicaragua, 1994)

Brought together prominent Nicaraguan leaders with their counterparts from Europe and the Americas to discuss reconciliation, civil-military relations, private property and economic reform.


Edgardo Boeninger, Former Minister Secretary of the Presidency


Carlos Ominami, Senator, Colombia

Costa Rica

Cesar Gaviria, President, Costa Rica
Mario Carazo, Congressman, Costa Rican Legislative Assembly; Chairman, Institute for Central American Studies

Czech Republic

Tomas Jezek, Director, National Property Fund

El Salvador

Alfredo Cristiani, President
Oscar Santamaria, Minister of the Presidency
Joaquin Villalobos, Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front


H. Hindrich Boie, Director, Department of Unresolved Property and Reprivatization


General Hector Gramajo, Former Minister of Defense Mexico
Pedro Aspe, Minister of Finance


Arnoldo Alemán, Mayor of Managua
Fernando Caldera, Chief of the National Police
Adolfo Calero, National Conservative Party
Luis Raul Cema, Secretary, Association of Bond Holders
Violeta Chamorro, President
Pablo Antonio Cuadra, Rector of UNICA
Thomas Delaney, Vice-Minister of the Presidency
Jose Espinoza, Secretary General, CUS
Azucena Ferrey, President, Commission for Women, Youth, Children and Family of the National Assembly
Mario de Franco, Professor, INCAE
Enrique Bolaños Geyer, Former President, COSEP
Ramiro Gurdian, President, COSEP
Luis Humberto Guzman, President, National Assembly
Moises Hassan, MUR Representative to the National Assembly
Lucio Jiménez, Secretary General, CST
Carlos Reynaldo Lacayo, President, AMCHAM
Alejandro Martinez, Director, FIDEG
Monsenor Abelardo Mata, Bishop of Esteli
Francisco Mayorga, Civil Movement
Daniel Nunez, Secretary General, UNAG
Orlando Nunez, Director, CIPRES
Daniel Ortega, Secretary General, FSLN
Adolfo Jarquin Ortell, Defense Committee, National Assembly
Emilio Pereira, Minister of Finance
Sergio Ramirez, FSLN
Col. Antemor Rosales, Representative of the Chief of Staff of the Sandinista Popular Army
Dora Maria Tellez, President, Commission for Economic Issues of the National Assembly
Col. Hugo Torres, Representative of the Chief of Staff of the Sandinista Popular Army


Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, Former President
Adam Michnik, Editor-in-Chief, Gazeta Wyborzca

Jerzy Osiatynski, Former Minister of Finance and Labor
Wiktor Osiatynski, Constitutional Advisor to the Polish Parliament


Yegor Gaidar, Former Prime Minister


Jose Pedro Perez Llorca, Former Minister of Foreign Affairs


Pierre Schori, Deputy Foreign Minister

United Nations

Hubert Escaith, Director, Economic Development Section, ECLAC, Mexico
Francesco Vincenti, Resident Representative, UNDP

United States

Jimmy Carter, Former President
Angier B. Duke, President, Council of American Ambassadors
General Mark Hamilton, Deputy Director for Strategic Planning and Policy, US CINCPAC
James LeMoyne, UN Political Advisor to Central America
Wendy W. Luers, President, Foundation for a Civil Society
Dick McCall, Chief of Staff, USAID
Richard Millett, Senior Research Associate, North-South Center
Ambler Moss, Director, The North-South Center
Terry Sanford, Former US Senator
John Strasma, Professor of Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin

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