Democracy and Decommunization: Disqualification Measures in Eastern and Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union

(Venice, Italy, 1993)

Representatives from four continents (22 countries) evaluated a spectrum of legislation enacted as part of decommunization and considered “model principles” designed to inform future disqualification measures.


Kujtim Cashku, Vice Chair, Albanian Helsinki Committee
Gramoz Pashko, Member of Parliament


Evgeny Novikov, Member of Parliament, Belarus League of Human Rights


Georgi Panev, Member of Parliament
Dimitrina Petrova, Director, Institute for Social and Environmental Research
Aleksander Tomov, Member of Parliament


José Zalaquett, Lawyer, Member, National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation, Chile


Stanko Nick, Chief Legal Adviser, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

The Czech Republic

Jaroslav Basta, Former Chair, November 17th Committee on Lustration
Jan Urban, Journalist


Merle Krigul, Member of Parliament
Ants-Enno Lohmus, Member of Parliament, President, Estonian Union of National Minorities
Mart Nutt, Member of Parliament, Chairman, Constitutional Law Committee


Antti Suviranta, President, Supreme Administrative Court


Roger Errera, Conseillor d’ Etat


Joachim Gauck, Federal Commissioner of the Stasi Files
Wolfgang Nowak, State Secretary for Education, Saxony
Helmut Steinberger, Professor of Law, University of Heidelberg and Vice President, The European Commission for Democracy through Law of the Council of Europe


Andras Sajo, Director, Constitutional and Legislative Policy Institute, Central European University
Jozsef Szajer, Member of Parliament, President, FIDESZ Faction


Sarmite Elerte, Editor-in-Chief, DIENA
Aivars Endzins, Member of Parliament, Chairman, Legal Affairs Commission
Egils Levits, Minister of Justice
Andrejs Pantalejevs, Member of Parliament, President, Latvia’s Way Faction


Vytautas Landsbergis, Member of Parliament, Former President of Lithuania
Kestutis Lapinskas, Justice, Constitutional Court


Joseph Said Pullicino, Justice, Constitutional Court


Ion Casian, Vice-President, Association of Lawyers
Stefan Uritu, Chairman, Moldovan Helsinki Committee


Halina Bortnowska-Dabrowska, Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights
Jerzy Jaskiernia, Member of Parliament, Chairman of Legislative Committee
Aleksander Kwasniewski, Member of Parliament, Leader, Democratic Left Alliance (SLD)
Aleksander Smolar, Chairman of the Board, Stefan Batory Foundation


Calin Anastasiu, Member of Parliament, Editor, POLIS
Petru Gavrilescu, Specialist, Directorate for Human Rights, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Monica Macovei, Public Prosecutor, Department of Human Rights, General Prosecutor’s Office
Lucian Mihai, Professor of Law, Bucharest University


Nikolai Rudensky, Senior Research Fellow, Institute for the Economy in Transition
Alexander Tsipko, Director, The Gorbachev Foundation


Peter Jambrek, President, Constitutional Court
Tanja Petovar, Lawyer
Lovro Sturm, Justice, Constitutional Court
Bostjan M. Zupancic, Justice, Constitutional Court


Natalie Belitser, Head, Ukrainian National Committee of Helsinki Citizen’s Assembly
Dmytro Chobit, Member of Parliament, Member, Commission on Questions of Crimes of the Communist Party
Yaroslav Kondratjev, Member of Parliament, Chairman, Legal Affairs Commission
Vitaly Kriukov, Vice-President, Ukranian Legal Foundation

United States

Tom Blanton, Executive Director, National Security Archive
Holly Cartner, Counsel, Helsinki Watch
Wendy W. Luers, President, The Foundation for a Civil Society, Co-Chair, The Project on Justice in Times of Transition
Joseph Montville, Senior Consultant for Conflict Resolution, U.S. Department of State
Tim Phillips, Co-Chair, The Project on Justice in Times of Transition
Tina Rosenberg, Journalist, Visiting Fellow, National Security Archive
Herman Schwartz, Professor of Law, The American University, Co-Chair, The Project on Justice in Times of Transition
Ruti Teitel, Professor of Law, New York Law School

International Organizations

Dominique Guizien, Directorate of Human Rights, Council of Europe
Thomas Markert, Directorate of Legal Affairs, Council of Europe


Jose Maria Argueta, Centro Demos, El Salvador
George Biddle, President, Institute for Central American Studies
Andre du Toit, Institute for a Democratic Alternative in South Africa (IDASA)
Frank Loy, The German Marshall Fund of the United States
Olexandr Musok, First Secretary, Ukrainian Embassy to Italy

Read Full Report